Summary Artificial Intelligence 2023 Legislation – National Conference of State Legislatures

Artificial intelligence, the development of computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as learning and decision-making, has the potential to spur innovation and transform industry and government. As the science and technology of AI continues to develop, more products and services are coming onto the market. For example, companies are developing AI to help consumers run their homes and allow the elderly to stay in their homes longer. AI is used in health care technologies, self-driving cars, digital assistants and many other areas of daily life. 
Concerns about potential misuse or unintended consequences of AI, however, have prompted efforts to examine and develop standards. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, for example, is holding workshops and discussions with the public and private sectors to develop federal standards for the creation of reliable, robust and trustworthy AI systems. 
In the 2023 legislative session, at least 25 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia introduced artificial intelligence bills, and 15 states and Puerto Rico adopted resolutions or enacted legislation. Examples of the enacted legislation and adopted resolutions include:
State lawmakers also are considering AI’s benefits and challenges—a growing number of measures are being introduced to study the impact of AI or algorithms and the potential roles for policymakers. 
This webpage covers key legislation related to AI issues generally. Legislation related solely to specific AI technologies, such as facial recognition or autonomous cars, is being tracked separately. 
Alabama
None
Alaska
None
Arizona
H 2482
Appropriations and Crime Victim Notification Fund
Enacted
Provides that the Law Enforcement Crime Victim Notification Fund is established consisting of legislative appropriations, enables the county or city, or both, or tribal law enforcement agency or university police department-based deployment of an automated crime victim notification system to a user base consisting of law enforcement agencies, appropriates funds.
Government Use
Arizona
S 1565
Ballot Processing and Electronic Adjudication and Limit
Vetoed
Relates to ballot processing, relates to electronic adjudication, relates to limitation.
Elections
Arkansas
H 1768
Railroad Train Defectors Standard Requirements
Failed – Adjourned
Creates standard requirements concerning railroad train defect detectors.
Private Sector Use
California
A 302
Department of Technology: Automated Decision Systems
To governor
Requires the Department of Technology, in coordination with other interagency bodies, to conduct, on or before specified date, a comprehensive inventory of all high-risk automated decision systems, as defined, that have been proposed for use, development, or procurement by, or are being used, developed, or procured by, state agencies.
Government Use
California
A 331
Automated Decision Tools
Pending
Relates to the State Fair Employment and Housing Act. Requires a deployer and a developer of an automated decision tool to perform an impact assessment for any such tool the deployer uses that includes a statement of the purpose of the tool and its intended benefits, uses, and deployment contexts. Requires a public attorney to, before commencing an action for injunctive relief, provide written notice to a deployer or developer of the alleged violations and provide a specified opportunity to cure violations.
Impact Assessment; Notification; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
California
A 459
Contracts Against Public Policy: Personal
Pending
Provides that a provision in an agreement between an individual and any other person for the performance of personal or professional services is contrary to public policy and deemed unconscionable if the provision meets specified conditions relating to the use of a digital replica of the voice or likeness of an individual in lieu of the work of the individual or to train a generative artificial intelligence system.
Private Sector Use
California
A 1282
Mental Health: Impacts of Social Media
Pending
Requires the Mental Health Services Oversight and Accountability Commission to explore, among other things, the persons and populations that use social media and the negative mental health risks associated with social media and artificial intelligence. Requires the commission to report to specified policy committees of the Legislature a statewide strategy to understand, communicate, and mitigate mental health risks associated with the use of social media by children and youth.
Responsible Use
California
A 1502
Health Care Coverage: Discrimination
Pending
Prohibits a health care service plan or health insurer from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability through the use of clinical algorithms in its decision-making.
Health Use; Private Sector Use
California
ACR 96
23 Asilomar AI Principles
Pending
Expresses the support of the Legislature for the 23 Asilomar AI Principles as guiding values for the development of artificial intelligence and of related public policy.
Government Use; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
California
AJR 6
Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Urges the U.S. government to impose an immediate moratorium on the training of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4 for at least six months to allow time to develop much-needed AI governance systems.
California
S 294
Artificial Intelligence: Regulation
Pending
Expresses the intent of the Legislature to enact legislation related to artificial intelligence that would relate to, among other things, establishing standards and requirements for the safe development, secure deployment, and responsible scaling of frontier artificial intelligence models in the state market by, among other things, establishing a framework of disclosure requirements for AI models.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Responsible Use
California
S 313
Department of Technology: Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Requires any state agency that usestilizes generative artificial intelligence to directly communicate with a natural person to provide notice to that person that the interaction with the state agency is being communicated through artificial intelligence. Requires the state agency to provide instructions to inform the natural person how they can directly communicate with a natural person from the state agency.
Government Use; Oversight/Governance
California
S 398
Department of Technology: Advanced Technology: Research
Pending
Provides for the Artificial Intelligence for California Research Act, which would require the Department of Technology, upon appropriation by the Legislature, to develop and implement a comprehensive research plan to study the feasibility of using advanced technology to improve state and local government services. Requires the research plan to include, among other things, an analysis of the potential benefits and risks of using artificial intelligence technology in government services.
Government Use
California
S 721
California Interagency AI Working Group
Pending
Creates the California Interagency AI Working Group to deliver a report to the Legislature regarding artificial intelligence. Requires the working group members to be Californians with expertise in at least two of certain areas, including computer science, artificial intelligence, and data privacy. Requires the report to include a recommendation of a definition of artificial intelligence as it pertains to its use in technology for use in legislation.
Studies
California
SCR 17
Artificial Intelligence
Adopted
Affirms the state legislature’s commitment to President Biden’s vision for safe artificial intelligence and the principles outlined in the Blueprint for an AI Bill of Rights. Expresses the Legislature’s commitment to examining and implementing those principles in its legislation and policies related to the use and deployment of automated systems.
Responsible Use
Colorado
S 32
Wildfire Detection Technology Pilot Program
Failed – Adjourned
Provides that the Center of Excellence for Advanced Technology Aerial Firefighting shall implement one or more pilot programs using remote camera technology to detect, identify, or confirm the existence of wildfires in the wildland-urban interface, provides that the pilot program or programs may include the use of artificial intelligence technologies, appropriates funds to the Department of Public Safety.
Government Use
Connecticut
S 1103
Artificial Intelligence Automated Decision
Enacted
Relates to artificial intelligence, automated decision-making and personal data privacy, provides that the Office of Policy and Management shall develop and establish policies and procedures concerning the development, procurement, implementation, utilization and ongoing assessment of systems that employ artificial intelligence and are in use by sState agencies.
Government Use; Oversight/Governance; Responsible Use
Delaware
None
District of Columbia
B 114
Stop Discrimination by Algorithms Act of 2023
Pending
Prohibits users of algorithmic decision-making from utilizing algorithmic eligibility determinations in a discriminatory manner, requires corresponding notices to individuals whose personal information is used, provides for appropriate means of civil enforcement.
Audit; Notification; Responsible Use
Florida
None
Georgia
H 18
Supplemental Appropriations
Enacted
Makes, provides, and changes certain appropriations for the operation of the state government and its departments, boards, bureaus, commissions, institutions, and other agencies, for the university system, common schools, counties, municipalities, and political subdivisions, for all other governmental activities, projects, and undertakings authorized by law, and for all leases, contracts, agreements, and grants authorized by law, provides for the control and administration of funds, including funds for the Georgia Artificial Intelligence Manufacturing Project.
Appropriations
Georgia
H 203
Control of Hazardous Conditions
Enacted
Relates to the control of hazardous conditions, preventable diseases, and metabolic disorders, revises provisions relating to restrictions on the sale and dispensing of contact lenses with respect to physicians, revises definitions, provides requirements for assessment mechanisms.
Health Use
Georgia
HR 381
Honorary Resolution
Adopted
Honors the inaugural year of Seckinger High School and its innovative artificial intelligence education.
Education/Training
Guam
None
Hawaii
SCR 179
Artificial Intelligence Benefits and Risks
Adopted
Urges Congress to begin a discussion considering the benefits and risks of artificial intelligence technologies.
Responsible Use
Hawaii
SR 123
Artificial Intelligence
Adopted
Urges Congress to begin a discussion considering the benefits and risks of artificial intelligence technologies.
Responsible Use
Idaho
None
Illinois
H 364
Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act
Pending
Amends the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, makes a technical change in a section concerning the short title.
Private Sector Use
Illinois
H 1002
Hospital Diagnostics Certification
Pending
Amends the University of Illinois Hospital Act and the Hospital Licensing Act, provides that before using any diagnostic algorithm to diagnose a patient, a hospital must first confirm that the diagnostic algorithm has been certified by the Department of Public Health and the Department of Innovation and Technology, has been shown to achieve as or more accurate diagnostic results than other diagnostic means, and is not the only method of diagnosis available to a patient.
Health Use
Illinois
H 2570
Anti Click Gambling Data Analytics Collection Act
Pending
Creates the Anti-Click Gambling Data Analytics Collection Act, provides that no entity that operates a remote gambling platform or a subsidiary of the entity shall collect data from a participant with the intent to predict how the participant will gamble in a particular gambling or betting scenario.
Private Sector Use
Illinois
H 3338
Safe Patient Limits Act
Pending
Creates the Safe Patient Limits Act, provides the maximum number of patients that may be assigned to a registered nurse in specified situations, provides that nothing shall preclude a facility from assigning fewer patients to a registered nurse than the limits provided in Act, provides that nothing in the Act precludes the use of patient acuity systems consistent with the Nurse Staffing by Patient Acuity Act.
Health Use; Effect on Labor/Employment
Illinois
H 3563
Innovation and Technology Act
Enacted
Amends the Department of Innovation and Technology Act, replaces the chair of the Board of Higher Education with the executive director of the Illinois Community College Board, adds to the Board board the statewide chief information security officer, or his or her designee, to the Bboard, requires the task forceTask Force  to provide a report, makes technical changes on the provisions concerning the location of task forceTask Force meetings and the responsibilities of the Generative AI and Natural Language Processing Task Force.
Studies
Illinois
H 3773
Human Rights Act
Pending
Amends the Human Rights Act, provides that an employer that uses predictive data analytics in its employment decisions may not consider the applicant’s race or ZIP code when used as a proxy for race to reject an applicant in the context of recruiting, hiring, promotion, renewal of employment, selection for training or apprenticeship, discharge, discipline, tenure or terms, privileges, or conditions of employment.
Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
Illinois
S 504
Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act
Pending
Amends the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, makes a technical change in a section concerning the short title.
Private Sector Use
Illinois
S 2314
Safe Patient Limits Act
Pending
Creates the Safe Patient Limits Act, provides the maximum number of patients that may be assigned to a registered nurse in specified situations, provides that nothing shall preclude a facility from assigning fewer patients to a registered nurse than the limits provided in the act, provides that the maximum patient assignments may not be exceeded, regardless of the use and application of any patient acuity system.
Health Use; Effect on Labor/Employment
Indiana
None
Iowa
None
Kansas
None
Kentucky
None
Louisiana
SCR 49
Technology
Adopted
Requests the Joint Committee on Technology and Cybersecurity to study the impact of artificial intelligence in operations, procurement, and policy.
Government Use
Maine
H 1270, First Special Session
Data Privacy and Protection Act
Pending – Carryover
Enacts the Data Privacy and Protection Act, requires policies, practices and procedures for data privacy, prohibits retaliation for the exercise of a right relating to personal data and prohibits discriminatory practices in the collection, processing or transfer of personal data, relates to civil penalty.
Impact Assessment
Maine
S 656, First Special Session
Staffing of Nurses and Improve Patient Care
Pending – Carryover
Addresses unsafe staffing of nurses and improve patient care.
Health Use; Effect on Labor/Employment
Maryland
H 622
Technology Grant Program and Fund
Enacted
Establishes the Industry 4.0 Technology Grant Program in the Department of Commerce to provide grants to certain small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises to assist those manufacturers with implementing new Industry 4.0 technology or related infrastructure for certain purposes, establishes the Industry 4.0 Technology Grant Fund as a special, nonlapsing fund, requires the governor to include in the budget bill for fiscal years 2024 through 2028 an appropriation of a specified amount to the fund.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use
Maryland
H 996
Artificial Intelligence Implementation Causing Harm
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes that a person who intentionally designs and creates artificial intelligence software able to cause physical injury or death is strictly liable for damages and subject to a civil penalty if the software is used to cause personal injury or death, prohibits a person from using a physical implement that acts independently of the person but is directed by artificial intelligence software to cause injury to or death of another.
Maryland
H 1034
Artificial Intelligence Impact Advisory Board
Failed
Establishes the Artificial Intelligence Impact Advisory Board to study certain issues relating to artificial intelligence and the impact that related laws, regulations, and policies have on the state’s citizens, requires the board on specified date, to report its findings and recommendations to the Governor and the General Assembly.
Studies
Maryland
H 1068
Commission on Responsible Artificial Intelligence
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes the Commission on Responsible Artificial Intelligence in Maryland to study certain issues related to the use and regulation of artificial intelligence, requires the commission to report its findings and recommendations to the House Health and Government Operations Committee, the House Economic Matters Committee, the Senate Finance Committee, and the Senate Education, Energy, and the Environment Committee on or before a specified date.
Studies
Maryland
H 1132
Technology and Science Advisory Commission
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes the Technology and Science Advisory Commission to study and make recommendations on technology and science in the state, requires the governor, for each fiscal year, to include in the annual budget bill an appropriation of a specified amount to the commission, requires the commission to report on its activities and recommendations to the governor and the General Assembly on specified date each year.
Studies
Maryland
S 906
Industry Technology Grant Program and Fund
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes the specified Industry Technology Grant Program in the Department of Commerce to provide grants to certain small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises to assist those manufacturers with implementing new specified Industry technology or related infrastructure for certain purposes, establishes the specified Industry Technology Grant Fund as a special, nonlapsing fund.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use
Massachusetts
H 51
Economic Revitalization
Pending
Finances the immediate economic revitalization, community development, and housing needs of the commonwealth.
Appropriations
Massachusetts
H 64
State Agency Automated Decision Making
Pending
Relates to state agency automated decision-making, artificial intelligence, transparency, fairness, and individual rights.
Government Use; Responsible Use; Studies
Massachusetts
H 560
Media Literacy in Schools
Pending
Relates to media literacy in schools.
Massachusetts
H 1873
Preventing Dystopian Work Environments
Pending
Relates to preventing dystopian work environments.
Impact Assessment; Effect on Labor/Employment; Notification; Private Sector Use
Massachusetts
H 1974
Use of Artificial Intelligence in Mental Health Service
Pending
Relates to the use of artificial intelligence in mental health services.
Health Use
Massachusetts
H 4024
Automated Decision Making
Pending
Establishes a commission on automated decision-making by government in the commonwealth.
Government Use; Responsible Use; Studies
Massachusetts
S 23
Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2023
Pending
Makes appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2023 to provide for supplementing certain existing appropriations and for certain other activities and projects reports, recommending that the same ought to pass with an amendment striking out all after the enacting clause and inserting in place thereof the text of Senate document numbered 23.
Appropriations
Massachusetts
S 31
Regulate Generative Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Relates to drafted with the help of ChatGPT to regulate generative artificial intelligence models like ChatGPT.
Responsible Use
Massachusetts
S 33
Automated Decision Making by Government
Pending
Establishes a commission on automated decision-making by government in the commonwealth.
Government Use; Responsible Use; Studies
Michigan
None
Minnesota
H 2890
State Government
Pending – Carryover
Relates to state government, provides for certain crime, public safety, victim, sentencing, expungement, clemency, evidence, policing, private security, corrections, firearm, controlled substances, community supervision, and 911 emergency communication system policy provisions in statutes and laws, provides for reports, authorizes rulemaking, appropriates money.
Government Use
Minnesota
S 2909
State Government
Enacted
Relates to state government, provides law for judiciary, public safety, crime, sentencing, evidence, courts, law enforcement, firearms, controlled substances, corrections, clemency, expungement, rehabilitation and reinvestment, civil law, community supervision, supervised release, and human rights, provides for rulemaking, provides for reports, provides for criminal and civil penalties.
Government Use
Mississippi
S 3000
Eight Universities Fund
Enacted
Makes an appropriation to the board of trustees of state institutions of higher learning for support of the eight universities for fiscal year 2024.
Appropriations
Missouri
H 311
Twenty First Century Technology Innovation Task Force
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes the 21st Century Technology Innovation Task Force.
Government Use; Studies
Missouri
H 317
Missouri Technology Task Force
Failed – Adjourned
Establishes the Missouri Technology Task Force.
Studies
Montana
None
Nebraska
None
Nevada
S 165
Emerging Technologies Task Force
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to technology, creates the Emerging Technologies Task Force within the Department of Business and Industry, prescribes the membership, powers and duties of the task Force, authorizes the director of the to create an Opportunity Center for Emerging Technology Businesses as part of the Office of Business Finance and Planning of the Department, provides other matters properly relating thereto.
Studies
Nevada
S 419
Revisions Relating To Public Health
Vetoed
Relates to public health, requires the adoption of a framework for the electronic transmittal, maintenance and exchange of certain health information, requires governmental entities, health care providers, insurers and insurance administrators to maintain, transmit and exchange health information electronically, requires the suspension of the license, certificate, registration or similar credential of a health care provider, insurer or insurance administrator that fails to comply with that requirement.
Health Use; Studies
New Hampshire
None
New Jersey
A 168
Artificial Intelligence Economic Growth Study
Pending
Requires the Commissioner of Labor and Workforce Development to conduct study and issue report on impact of artificial intelligence on growth of state economy.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Studies
New Jersey
A 537
Automobile Insurers Automated Underwriting System
Pending
Requires automobile insurers to provide policyholders with annual documentation demonstrating no discriminatory outcomes with insurer’s automated underwriting system.
Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New Jersey
A 4909
Use of Automated Tools in Hiring Decisions
Pending
Regulates use of automated tools in hiring decisions to minimize discrimination in employment.
Audit; Notification; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New Jersey
A 5150
Job Loss Due to Automation Information
Pending
Requires Department of Labor and Workforce Development to track and maintain information on job loss due to automation.
Effect on Labor/Employment
New Jersey
S 1402
Automated Decision System Discrimination
Pending
Prohibits certain discrimination by automated decision systems.
Health Use; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New Jersey
S 1926
Use of Automated Tools in Hiring Decisions
Pending
Regulates use of automated tools in hiring decisions to minimize discrimination in employment.
Audit; Notification; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New Jersey
S 3714
Personal Identifiable Information Disclosures
Pending
Regards the New Jersey Disclosure and Accountability Transparency Act (NJ DATA), establishes certain requirements for disclosure and processing of personally identifiable information, establishes Office of Data Protection and Responsible Use in Division of Consumer Affairs.
Notification
New Jersey
S 3876
State Agencies Automated Systems Regulations
Pending
Concerns about regulation of automated systems and artificial intelligence used by state agencies.
Government Use
New Mexico
HM 75
Children Youth and Families Department
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to children, youth and families Department structured decision-making study.
Government Use; Effect on Labor/Employment
New Mexico
S 78
Center for Dryland Resilience
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to the center for dryland resilience.
Government Use
New Mexico
S 192
Appropriations and Legislative Confidentiality
Enacted
Makes general appropriations and authorizing expenditures, provides an exception to legislative confidentiality.
Appropriations
New Mexico
SM 63
Children Youth and Families Structured Decision-Making
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to the Children, Youth and Families Department structured decision-making study.
Government Use; Effect on Labor/Employment
New York
A 567
Automated Employment Decision Tools
Pending
Establishes criteria for the use of automated employment decision tools, provides for enforcement for violations of such criteria.
Impact Assessment; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New York
A 843
Motor Vehicle Insurer Discrimination
Pending
Prohibits motor vehicle insurers from discrimination based on socioeconomic factors in determining algorithms used to construct actuarial tables, coverage terms, premiums and/or rates.
Private Sector Use
New York
A 3308
Digital Fairness Act
Pending
Enacts the Digital Fairness Act, requires any entity that conducts business in New York and maintains the personal information of 500 or more individuals to provide meaningful notice about their use of personal information, establishes unlawful discriminatory practices relating to targeted advertising.
Audit; Government Use; Impact Assessment; Responsible Use; Studies
New York
A 3593
State Privacy Act
Pending
Enacts the State Privacy Act to require companies to disclose their methods of de-identifying personal information, to place special safeguards around data sharing and to allow consumers to obtain the names of all entities with whom their information is shared.
Audit; Government Use; Notification; Private Sector Use
New York
A 4534
School Safety Planning and Training
Pending
Relates to classroom safety mechanisms, emergency medical equipment, and evidence-based best practices for school safety planning and training.
Government Use
New York
A 4969
State Commission to Study Artificial Intelligence
To governor
Creates a temporary state commission to study and investigate how to regulate artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, repeals such commission.
Studies
New York
A 5309
State Units
Pending
Requires state units to purchase a product or service that is or contains an algorithmic decision system that adheres to responsible artificial intelligence standards, specifies content included in responsible artificial intelligence standards, requires the commissioner of taxation and finance to adopt certain regulations, alters the definition of unlawful discriminatory practice to include acts performed through algorithmic decision systems.
Government Use; Responsible Use
New York
A 7106
Political Artificial Intelligence Disclaimer (PAID) Act
Pending
Amends the Election Law, in relation to the use and disclosure of synthetic media, provides that a political communication which was produced by or includes any synthetic media shall be required to disclose the use of such synthetic media, provides that the disclosure on printed or digital political communications, including but not limited to brochures, flyers, posters, mailings, or internet advertising shall be printed or typed in an appropriate legible form.
Elections
New York
A 7501
State Office of Algorithmic Innovation
Pending
Creates a State Office of algorithmic Innovation to set policies and standards to ensure algorithms are safe, effective, fair, and ethical, and that the state is conducive to promoting algorithmic innovation.
Oversight/Governance; Responsible Use
New York
A 7634
Applicants of the Empire State Film Production Credit
Pending
Amends the Tax Law, prohibits applicants of the empire state film production credit from using artificial intelligence that would displace any natural person in their productions.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use
New York
A 7838
Department of Labor Study on Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Requires the Department of Labor to study the long-term impact of artificial intelligence on the state workforce including but not limited to on job performance, productivity, training, education requirements, privacy and security, prohibits any state entity from using artificial intelligence in any way that would displace any natural person from their employment with such state entity until the department’s final report is received.
Education/Training; Effect on Labor/Employment; Studies
New York
A 7859
Employers and Employment Agencies
Pending
Requires employers and employment agencies to notify candidates for employment if machine learning technology is used to make hiring decisions prior to the use of such technology.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use
New York
A 7904
Disclosure of the Use of Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Requires disclosure of the use of artificial intelligence in political communications, directs the state board of elections to create criteria for determining whether a political communication contains an image or video footage created through generative artificial intelligence and to create a definition of content generated by artificial intelligence.
Elections
New York
A 7906
Use of Automated Decision Tools by Landlords
Pending
Relates to the use of automated decision tools by landlords for making housing decisions, sets conditions and rules for use of such tools.
Private Sector Use
New York
S 2277
Digital Fairness Act
Pending
Enacts the “digital fairness act”, requires any entity that conducts business in New York and maintains the personal information of 500 or more individuals to provide meaningful notice about their use of personal information, establishes unlawful discriminatory practices relating to targeted advertising.
Audit; Government Use; Impact Assessment; Responsible Use; Studies
New York
S 5641
Use of Automated Employment Decision Tools
Pending
Establishes criteria for the use of automated employment decision tools, provides for enforcement for violations of such criteria.
Impact Assessment; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
New York
S 6402
State Commission to Study Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Creates a temporary state commission to study and investigate how to regulate artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, repeals such commission.
Studies
New York
S 6638
Political Artificial Intelligence Disclaimer Act
Pending
Enacts the Political Artificial Intelligence Disclaimer Act, relates to the use and disclosure of synthetic media, provides that the disclosure on printed or digital political communications, including but not limited to brochures, flyers, posters, mailings, or internet advertising shall be printed or typed in an appropriate legible form.
Elections
New York
S 6685
Motor Vehicle Insurers
Pending
Prohibits motor vehicle insurers from discrimination based on socioeconomic factors in determining algorithms used to construct actuarial tables, coverage terms, premiums and/or rates.
Private Sector Use
New York
S 6859
Advertisement Disclosures
Pending
Amends the General Business Law, requires advertisements to disclose the use of synthetic media, imposes a $1,000 civil penalty for a first violation and a $5,000 penalty for any subsequent violation.
Private Sector Use
New York
S 7422
Applicants of the Empire State Film Production Credit
Pending
Amends the Tax Law, prohibits applicants of the empire state film production credit from using artificial intelligence that would displace any natural person in their productions.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use
New York
S 7543
Loading Act
Pending
Enacts the legislative oversight of automated decision-making in government act to regulate the use of artificial intelligence techniques by state agencies.
Government Use; Impact Assessment; Oversight/Governance
New York
S 7592
Disclosure of the Use of Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Requires disclosure of the use of artificial intelligence in political communications, directs the state board of elections to create criteria for determining whether a political communication contains an image or video footage created through generative artificial intelligence and to create a definition of content generated by artificial intelligence.
Elections
New York
S 7623
Use of Electronic Monitoring by Employer
Pending
Restricts the use by an employer or an employment agency of electronic monitoring or an automated employment decision tool to screen a candidate or employee for an employment decision unless such tool has been the subject of a bias audit within the last year and the results of such audit have been made public, requires notice to employment candidates of the use of such tools, provides remedies, makes a technical change to the civil rights law.
Audit; Impact Assessment; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
North Carolina
H 259
Base Budget Appropriations
To governor
Makes base budget appropriations for current operations of state agencies, departments, and institutions; appropriates $3.2 million for the 2023-2024 fiscal year as a directed grant to New Hanover County Schools and $2 million as a directed grant to Davidson County Schools for an AI School Safety Pilot Program.
Appropriations; Government Use
North Carolina
H 570
Reductions In Energy and Water Consumption
Pending
Saves taxpayer dollars by requiring reductions in energy and water consumption in public buildings.
Government Use
North Carolina
S 460
Automation and the Workforce
Pending
Establishes the study committee on automation and the workforce.
Effect on Labor/Employment; Private Sector Use; Studies
North Carolina
S 684
Stormwater Permits
Pending
Establishes deadlines for decisions by the Department of Environmental Quality on applications for stormwater permits and applications for permits proceeding under the express review program, makes other changes.
Appropriations; Government Use
North Dakota
H 1003
University System Expenses Appropriation
Enacted
Appropriates funds for defraying the expenses of the North Dakota university system, provides an appropriation to the Bank of North Dakota, relates to an economic diversification research fund, matching grants for agricultural research and extension, the Bismarck State College Polytechnic Center, a report on higher education trends, disclosure of financial condition, and a minimum amount payable, relates to the Skilled Workforce Student Loan Repayment Program and the Skilled Workforce Scholarship Program.
Government Use; Health Use; Private Sector Use; Studies
North Dakota
H 1361
Personhood Status
Enacted
Relates to the definition of person in the North Dakota Century Code, defines person as an individual, organization, government, political subdivision, or government agency or instrumentality, provides that the term does not include environmental elements, artificial intelligence, an animal, or an inanimate object.
N. Mariana Islands
Not available
Ohio
None
Oklahoma
None
Oregon
None
Pennsylvania
H 49
Artificial Intelligence Registry
Pending
Amends the act known as The Administrative Code, in powers and duties of the Department of State and its departmental administrative board, provides for artificial intelligence registry.
Oversight/Governance; Private Sector Use
Pennsylvania
H 1063
Sexual Abuse of Children
Pending
Amends specified title on Crimes and Offenses of the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, in sexual offenses, provides for the offense of unlawful dissemination of artificially generated depiction, relates to minors, provides for the offense of sexual abuse of children and for the offense of transmission of sexually explicit images by minor.
Pennsylvania
H 1380
Administration of Assistance Programs
Pending
Amends the act known as the Human Services Code, in public assistance, provides for administration of assistance programs.
Government Use
Pennsylvania
H 1663
Health Insurers
Pending
Provides for disclosure by health insurers of the use of artificial intelligence-based algorithms in the utilization review process.
Health Use; Notification
Pennsylvania
HR 170
Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Directs the Joint State Government Commission to establish an advisory committee to conduct a study on the field of artificial intelligence and its impact and potential future impact.
Government Use; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use; Studies
Pennsylvania
SR 143
Artificial Intelligence
Pending
Directs the Joint State Government Commission to establish an advisory committee to conduct a study on the field of artificial intelligence and its impact and potential future impact.
Government Use; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use; Studies
Puerto Rico
S 1179
Artificial Intelligence Officer
Pending
Creates an artificial intelligence officer attached to the Puerto Rico Innovation and Technology Service and establishes their duties; creates the Artificial Intelligence Council, establishes its duties; orders Puerto Rico Innovations and Technology Services to create and develop the public policy of the government in relation to the implementation of artificial intelligence through the agencies.
Government Use; Oversight/Governance
Puerto Rico
SJR 412
Department of State of the Government
Pending
Orders the Department of State to make a registry of all companies or businesses that operate, develop or use artificial intelligence systems.
Private Sector Use
Puerto Rico
SR 684
Artificial Intelligence
Adopted
Relates to conducting an investigation on the use of automated systems artificial intelligence that have the potential to significantly impact the rights, opportunities or access of the public to resources and critical services, the performance of public instrumentalities in relation to these issues, current state and federal statutes and regulations related to automated systems, the recommendations to follow to address the problems on these issues.
Studies
Rhode Island
H 5734
Business Regulation Regarding Insurance Discrimination
Pending
Prohibits the use of any external consumer data and information sources, as well as any algorithms or predictive models that use external consumer data and information sources, in a way that unfairly discriminates based on race, color, national or ethnic origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, or gender expression, by an insurer in regard to any insurance practice.
Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
Rhode Island
H 5866
The Atmosphere Protection Act
Pending
Prohibits the intentional release of hazardous polluting emissions into the atmosphere and provides for a natural climate while increasing resiliency by prohibiting deliberate atmospheric pollution and manipulation of the environment, provides that violation fees would be collected and placed into a trust fund for municipal-level allocation for projects that promote the safety of life and property as well as environmental and agricultural health free from hazardous atmospheric activities.
Government Use; Private Sector Use
Rhode Island
H 6285
Use of Artificial Intelligence in Mental Health Service
Pending
Defines artificial intelligence and regulates its use in providing mental health services.
Health Use
Rhode Island
H 6286
Generative Artificial Intelligence Models Regulations
Pending
Authorizes the office of attorney general to promulgate, adopt and enforce rules and regulations concerning generative artificial intelligence models, such as ChatGPT, to protect the public’s safety, privacy, and intellectual property rights.
Private Sector Use
Rhode Island
H 6423
Artificial Intelligence and Automated Decision System
Adopted
(Resolution) Requests the Department of Administration and the Office of Information Technology to review and evaluate the use and development of artificial intelligence (AI) and automated decision systems and provide recommendations regarding ongoing and upcoming plans to expand their use and current security and implementation procedures.
Government Use; Studies
Rhode Island
S 117
Artificial Intelligence in the Decision Making Process
Pending
Establishes a permanent commission to monitor the use of artificial intelligence in state government to make state government policy and other decisions, directs the commission to make recommendations regarding changes in the way state government uses artificial intelligence.
Government Use; Oversight/Governance; Responsible Use
Rhode Island
S 146
Use of Facial and Bio Metric Recognition Technology
Pending
Relates to state affairs and government, relates to video lottery games, table games and sports wagering, relates to the Rhode Island consumer protection gaming act, prohibits the use of facial recognition technology and biometric recognition technology in video -lottery terminals at pari-mutuel licensees in the state or in online betting applications.
Private Sector Use
A. Samoa
Not available
South Carolina
None
South Dakota
None
Tennessee
None
Texas
H 2060
Artificial Intelligence Advisory Council
Enacted
Relates to the creation of the artificial intelligence advisory council.
Government Use; Studies
Texas
H 3633
State Workforce Commission
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to a study on the establishment of a program administered by the State Workforce Commission to train individuals in certain skills related to artificial intelligence systems.
Education/Training; Studies
Texas
H 4168
Department of Family and Protective Services
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to prevention and early intervention services by the Department of Family and Protective Services.
Government Use
Texas
H 4318
Grant Program for Crime Victim Notification Systems
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to a grant program for crime victim notification systems.
Government Use
Texas
H 4695
Artificial Intelligence Mental Health Services
Failed – Adjourned
Relates to the provision of artificial intelligence mental health services.
Health Use
Texas
S 2085
Grant Program for Crime Victim Notification Systems
Enacted
Provides that the Criminal Justice Division shall establish and administer a grant program to provide financial assistance to a law enforcement agency for purposes of purchasing or developing a crime victim notification system, provides that the division shall, among other things, establish eligibility criteria for grant applicants and grant application procedures, provides that a crime victim notification system for which a law enforcement agency seeks a grant must meet specified requirements.
Government Use
Utah
None
Vermont
H 114
Electronic Monitoring
Pending – Carryover
Relates to restricting electronic monitoring of employees and employment-related automated decision systems.
Impact Assessment; Private Sector Use; Responsible Use
Virginia
None
U.S. Virgin Islands
None
Washington
H 1616
Charter of Peoples Personal Data Rights
Pending – Carryover
Creates a charter of people’s personal data rights.
Government Use; Private Sector Use
Washington
S 5356
Use of Automated Decision Systems
Pending – Carryover
Establishes guidelines for government procurement and use of automated decision systems to protect consumers, improve transparency, and create more market predictability.
Audit; Government Use; Impact Assessment; Notification
Washington
S 5643
Charter of Peoples Personal Data Rights
Pending – Carryover
Creates a charter of people’s personal data rights.
Government Use; Private Sector Use
West Virginia
H 3214
Road Optimization Assessment Data Pilot Project
Enacted
Creates the Road Optimization and Assessment Data Pilot Program, requires the commissioner of highways to implement the program, specifies assessment methods and term of program, requires reporting by the Division of Highways.
Government Use
Wisconsin
None
Wyoming
None
Legislation regarding funding for programs or studies.
Legislation that discusses an audit or evaluation of how the artificial intelligence use is functioning.
Education or training programs to develop skills or knowledge in artificial intelligence.
Use of artificial intelligence in processing election results.

Legislation focused on the use of artificial intelligence by government agencies and law enforcement.
Legislation focused on the use of artificial intelligence in health care or by health care professionals.

May require a documented risk-based evaluation of an automated decision tool or other artificial intelligence tool.
Legislation that relates to the effect artificial intelligence has on the workforce, type, quality, and number of jobs and labor markets. 

May require informing consumers or employees that they may be interacting in some way with artificial intelligence tools.

Legislation that may require an office or agency to supervise or oversee the use of artificial intelligence and ensure its responsible use.
Legislation focused on the use of artificial intelligence by private sector businesses and organizations.
May prohibit use of artificial intelligence tools that contribute to any type of algorithmic discrimination, unjustified differential treatment, or impacts disfavoring people based on their actual or perceived race, color, ethnicity, sex, religion, age, national origin, language, disability, veteran status, genetic information, reproductive health, or other classifications protected by state laws.

Legislation requiring a study of artificial intelligence issues or creating a task force, advisory body, commission or other regulatory, advisory or oversight entity.
For more information on this topic, use this form to reach NCSL staff.
Two cybersecurity experts join the podcast to discuss ways to safeguard energy systems from attacks, and the role state legislatures play through their oversight of public utility commissions. Since the start of 2021, states introduced nearly 500 bills and passed 99 measures related to energy security. 

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